ISSN 2636-2937
 

Original Research (Original Article) 
JVS. 2017; 2(1): 114-123


Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat.

Abstract
Background: Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a widely spread virus. Primary infection occurs via direct contact of the virus with host's mucous membranes especially of the mouth and eyes. It is one of the most common human viral infections with a life-time latency period; therefore, most of the infected persons are not aware of their infection. Complications among adults are blindness, encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Stability of HSV-1 in water, saliva droplets as well as wet surfaces was reported.
Aims of work: 1) to study HSV-1 stability and infectivity in collected water samples from Red Sea (RS), Nile River (NR) and pool (P) which have different physiochemical properties, 2) to determine the chlorine concentration needed to inactivate the virus.
Methods: physio-chemical properties and heavy metals contents of water samples were analyzed according to the standard methods recommended by the American Public Health Association (APHA). Plaque infectivity assay was used to test changes in viral count (infectivity) upon being inoculated into different types of water or at different chlorine concentrations at the chosen time points.
Results: the virus remained infectious for up to 1 week both in the RS and NR water although the very high salt concentration in RS compared to NR which was not the case with the P water that was attributed to its chlorine content. Also, exogenous addition of chlorine at concentrations 0.5, 1 and 2 ppm highly reduced the percentage of the recorded viral counts, yet, it did not completely abrogate viral infectivity as demonstrated by the still detected viral plaques. Further increasing chlorine concentration to 3 or 4 ppm completely arrested viral infectivity. Conclusions: 1) both RS and RN water can support transmission of HSV-1 during the first week of its shedding into water irrespective of their different physical properties and salt concentrations, 2) Chlorine should be exogenously added to pool water at concentration 3-4 ppm to ensure complete disinfection of HSV-1 particles.

Key words: River Nile water, Sea water, Pool water, Chlorine concentration, and HSV-1 infection.


 
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Pubmed Style

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat. Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. JVS. 2017; 2(1): 114-123.


Web Style

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat. Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. http://www.j-virol-sci.com/?mno=271209 [Access: November 18, 2019].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat. Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. JVS. 2017; 2(1): 114-123.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat. Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. JVS. (2017), [cited November 18, 2019]; 2(1): 114-123.



Harvard Style

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat (2017) Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. JVS, 2 (1), 114-123.



Turabian Style

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat. 2017. Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. Journal of Virological Sciences, 2 (1), 114-123.



Chicago Style

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat. "Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources." Journal of Virological Sciences 2 (2017), 114-123.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat. "Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources." Journal of Virological Sciences 2.1 (2017), 114-123. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat (2017) Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. Journal of Virological Sciences, 2 (1), 114-123.





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