Journal of Virological Sciences Service by

Home Journal Issues Guide for Authors Editorial Board About Journal Aims & Scope


Original Article Open Access
JVS. 2017; 2(1): 114-123


Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources

Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat.

Abstract
Background: Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a widely spread virus. Primary infection occurs via direct contact of the virus with host's mucous membranes especially of the mouth and eyes. It is one of the most common human viral infections with a life-time latency period; therefore, most of the infected persons are not aware of their infection. Complications among adults are blindness, encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Stability of HSV-1 in water, saliva droplets as well as wet surfaces was reported.
Aims of work: 1) to study HSV-1 stability and infectivity in collected water samples from Red Sea (RS), Nile River (NR) and pool (P) which have different physiochemical properties, 2) to determine the chlorine concentration needed to inactivate the virus.
Methods: physio-chemical properties and heavy metals contents of water samples were analyzed according to the standard methods recommended by the American Public Health Association (APHA). Plaque infectivity assay was used to test changes in viral count (infectivity) upon being inoculated into different types of water or at different chlorine concentrations at the chosen time points.
Results: the virus remained infectious for up to 1 week both in the RS and NR water although the very high salt concentration in RS compared to NR which was not the case with the P water that was attributed to its chlorine content. Also, exogenous addition of chlorine at concentrations 0.5, 1 and 2 ppm highly reduced the percentage of the recorded viral counts, yet, it did not completely abrogate viral infectivity as demonstrated by the still detected viral plaques. Further increasing chlorine concentration to 3 or 4 ppm completely arrested viral infectivity. Conclusions: 1) both RS and RN water can support transmission of HSV-1 during the first week of its shedding into water irrespective of their different physical properties and salt concentrations, 2) Chlorine should be exogenously added to pool water at concentration 3-4 ppm to ensure complete disinfection of HSV-1 particles.

Key words: River Nile water, Sea water, Pool water, Chlorine concentration, and HSV-1 infection.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Export to
Export to
Related Records
 Articles by Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy
Articles by Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 81
Downloaded: 16
Cited: 0


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Abd-Elshafy DN, Bahgat MM. Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. JVS. 2017; 2(1): 114-123.


Web Style

Abd-Elshafy DN, Bahgat MM. Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. http://www.j-virol-sci.com/?mno=271209 [Access: December 18, 2017].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Abd-Elshafy DN, Bahgat MM. Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. JVS. 2017; 2(1): 114-123.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Abd-Elshafy DN, Bahgat MM. Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. JVS. (2017), [cited December 18, 2017]; 2(1): 114-123.



Harvard Style

Abd-Elshafy, D. N. & Bahgat, M. M. (2017) Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. JVS, 2 (1), 114-123.



Turabian Style

Abd-Elshafy, Dina Nadeem, and Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat. 2017. Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. Journal of Virological Sciences, 2 (1), 114-123.



Chicago Style

Abd-Elshafy, Dina Nadeem, and Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat. "Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources." Journal of Virological Sciences 2 (2017), 114-123.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Abd-Elshafy, Dina Nadeem, and Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat. "Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources." Journal of Virological Sciences 2.1 (2017), 114-123. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Abd-Elshafy, D. N. & Bahgat, M. M. (2017) Herpes Simplex virus type 1 persistence in water from different sources. Journal of Virological Sciences, 2 (1), 114-123.



AUTHOR LOGIN

REVIEWER LOGIN

Indexed In



The articles in Journal of Virological Sciences are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.